Claire M. Fraser, one of the most highly cited investigators in microbiology. In 1995, she was the first to map the complete genetic code of a free-living organism and helped launch the new field of microbial genomics, revolutionizing the way microbiology has been studied. She and her team also sequenced the bacteria behind syphilis and Lyme disease, as well as the first plant genome and the first human-pathogenic parasite. Her work also helped identify the source of a deadly 2001 anthrax attack in one of the biggest investigations conducted by U.S. law enforcement.